• Aliyah: pl. aliyot (Heb., ascent), term for Jewish immigration Eretz Israel / Palestine from 1882.
    Since the emergence of political Zionism in the 19th century, the term has meant “Jewish immigration” to Palestine, or since 1948, to Israel in general.


  • Berufsumschichtung: 1: a term used since the late 19th century for vocational training of young Jews in so-called "practical professions"; 2: in the context of the database, the term is used to differentiate between non-Zionist (occupational retraining) and Zionist training (Hakhshara).
  • Beth halutz: pl. bate halutz (Heb., Pioneer house), state-run dormitories for Jewish youth organizations offering vocational training. Young people lived there together in kibbutz-like communities.
  • Boded (m) / bodeda (f): pl. bodedim (m ) / bodedot (f) (Heb., lone), halutzim (m pl.) and halutzot (f pl.), who completed their Hakhshara training alone or the individual members of the HeHalutz.


  • Chevra: (Heb., society).


  • Eretz Israel: (Heb., Land of Israel), Biblical term for the Israelite Land of Canaan, more modern usage refers to the British-controlled Mandatory Palestine, particularly in Zionist circles.


  • Galut / golah: (Heb., exile), has been used to describe the living situation of Jews outside of Eretz Israel in the diaspora since antiquity.


  • Hakhshara: pl. Hakhsharot (Heb., preparation) used for the self-organized training of adolescents and young adults in agriculture, horticulture, practical trades and home economics as a prerequisite for immigration to the British-controlled Mandatory Palestine.
  • Halutz (m) / halutza (f): pl. halutzim (m) / halutzot (f) (Heb., pioneer), term for the activists building up Palestine.
  • Hashomer Hatzair: Socialist-Zionist youth association; founded in Galicia in 1913; foundation of the German national association in 1931.


  • Khaver (m) / khavera (f): pl. khaverim (m ) / khaverot (f) (Heb., comrade), term used for comrades in the youth movement, in trade unions or in political parties, also for members of a kibbutz.
  • Kibbutz: pl. kibbutzim (Heb., gathering, clustering), Jewish communal settlements in Palestine/Israel based on the collective regarding property, class and the division of labor.
  • Kibbutz movement: Associations in which the communal settlements have joined together since the 1920s. The associations were either social-democratic, leftist-socialist or religiously oriented.
  • Kvutza: pl. kvutzot (Heb., group, community), term for smaller communal settlements founded by pioneers of the second Aliyah (1904–1914) which developed into the kibbutz movement.


  • Madrikh (m) / madrikha (f): pl. madrichim (m) / madrikhot (f) (Heb., leader), term for the mostly young leaders of Jewish youth groups.
  • Makkabi-Hazair: Zionist youth association; formed in 1934 from a merger between the Jewish Scout Association (IPD) and the Makkabi sports club; from the mid-1930s, the Jewish youth association with the largest membership in Germany.
  • Merkaz: (Heb., center).
  • Mittleren-Hachschara (MiHa): Zionist training opportunity from 1935 for younger youths (15-17 years); training similar to Hakhshara; was only conceived and practiced as communal training in groups.


  • Olim: (Heb., ascent), used to describe immigrants to Eretz Israel in Zionist circles.


  • Pegisha: pl. pegishot (Heb., meeting), organized meeting of a group or several organizations for a particular purpose.
  • Praktikant:innen: 1: Self-designation of Zionist retrainees from the "Blau-Weiss" Jewish Traveling Association until the mid-1920s; 2: Designation of non-Zionist trainees (e.g. in Groß-Breesen) as a distinction from the term "Chaluz".


  • Shaliach (m) / shlicha (f): pl. shlichim (m) / shlichot (f) (Heb., messenger), youth leaders who were sent by various kibbutz movements to help with organizational and educational work.
  • Sicha: pl. sichot (Heb., conversation, speech).
  • Snif: pl. snifim (Heb., local branch, group).
  • Stamchaluzim: Term for halutzim or halutzot who belonged to the Hechaluz, but not additionally to one of the youth leagues.


  • Tarbut: (Heb., culture), tarbut work is the teaching of Jewish culture and history.


  • Vorlehre: Project developed in 1934 by the Youth Welfare Department of the Jewish Community of Berlin (and later in other cities) to make Jewish youth who had left school "professionally ready"; training mainly in cities and in the trades; politically "neutral" counterpart to the Zionist "Mittlere Hachshara".


  • Werkleute: Jewish youth association that emerged in 1932 from a branch of the disbanded "Deutsch-Jüdischer Wanderbund Kameraden"; committed to Zionism and aliyah from 1933; joined the Artzi kibbutz association in Palestine at the end of the 1930s.


  • Youth Aliyah: Organized immigration of Jewish youths aged 14 to 18 to Palestine/Erez Israel; initiated by Recha Freier in Berlin in 1932/33 and later implemented by Henrietta Szold in Palestine; several weeks of preparation in the Galut; after the Aliyah, communal training in groups (mainly in kibbutzim).


  • Zeire Misrachi: (= the young Mizrahist; actually: Brith Hanoar schel Zeire Misrachi); Orthodox-Zionist youth league; connected to the Orthodox pioneer organization "Bachad".
  • Zionism: the goal of the Zionist movement was the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. The Zionist movement arose in the 19th century. There were both religious as well as secular forms existing side by side within the Zionist movement.